一．Choose the most suitable answer to complete the following sentences.（一题2分，共50分）
1. He is always here; it’s ___ you've never met him.
A. unique B. strange
C. rare D. peculiar
2. We shall probably never be able to ___ the exact nature of these sub-atomic particles.
A. assert B. impart
C. ascertain D. notify
3. Professor Hawking is ___ as one of the world's greatest living physicists.
A. dignified B. clarified
C. acknowledged D. illustrated
4. I must congratulate you ___ the excellent design of the new bridge.
A. with B. at
C. on D. of
5. She was so ___ in her job that she didn’t hear anybody knocking at the door.
A. attracted B. absorbed
C. drawn D. concentrated
6. All the people in the stadium cheered up when they saw hundreds of colorful balloons ____ slowly into the sky.
A. ascending B. elevating
C. escalating D. lingering
7. He soon received promotion, for his superiors realized that he was a man of considerable ____.
A. future B. possibility
C. ability D. opportunity
8. I hope that you’ll be more careful in typing the letter. Don’t ____ anything.
A. lack B. withdraw
C. omit D. leak
9. Military orders are ____ and cannot be disobeyed.
A. defective B. conservative
C. alternative D. imperative
10. Cancer is second only ___ heart disease as a cause of death.
A. of B. to
C. with D. from
11. You cannot be ___ careful when you drive a car.
A. very B. so
C. too D. enough
12. ____ the storm, the ship would have reached its destination on time.
A. In spite of B. In case of
C. But for D. Because
13. He is the only person who can ____ in this case, because the other witnesses were killed mysteriously.
A. testify B. charge
C. accuse D. rectify
14. I didn’t know the word. I had to ____ a dictionary.
A. make out B. look out
C. go over D. refer to
15. We can accept your order ____ payment is made in advance.
A. in the belief that B. in order that
C. on the excuse that D. on condition that
16. We'd like to ____ a table for five for dinner this evening.
A. preserve B. reserve
C. retain D. sustain
17. What you say now is not ____ with what you said last week.
A. consistent B. persistent
C. permanent D. insistent
18. The medicine ____ his pain but did not cure his illness.
A. activated B. alleviated
C. mediated D. deteriorated
19. He is too young to be able to ____ between right and wrong.
A. discard B. discern
C. disperse D. disregard
20. Using extremely different decorating schemes in adjoining rooms may result in ____ and lack of unity in style.
A. conflict B. confrontation
C. disturbance D. disharmony
21. The Eskimo is perhaps one of the most considerate of all Indians but seems to be ____ the welfare of his animals.
A. critical about B. indignant at
C. indifferent to D. subject to
22. It has been revealed that some government leaders ___ their authority and position to get illegal profits for themselves.
A. employ B. take
C. abuse D. overlook
23. His argument does not suggest that mankind can ____ to be wasteful in the utilization of these resources.
A. resort B. grant
C. afford D. entitle
24. Some diseases are ____ by certain water animals.
A. transplanted B. transformed
C. transported D. transmitted
25. Because of its intimacy, radio is usually more than just a medium; it is____.
A. firm B. company
C. corporation D. enterprise
It’s a big country!
When it comes to body weight, Americans stand out. Most visitors to the United States, no matter where they go across this vast country, comment on the size of many Americans. In fact, these impressions are backed by numerous statistics. For example, the average 5‘4" American weighs 162 pounds, or 15 pounds more than the average person of the same height from Western or Central Europe. Another comparison: At 150 pounds, the average 5’4” American woman is 24 pounds heavier than her Japanese counterpart.
Why are Americans so heavy？ Some blame the American diet. Certainly it’s true that Americans eat more high-fat foods – meat, dairy products, and processed food – and fewer grains and vegetables than people in other countries. But fat isn’t the whole story. Lifestyle factors – including the tendency for Americans to drive rather than walk or ride a bicycle to work, to snack throughout the day, and to have so many labor-saving devices in the home – appear to contribute to the problem.(165 words)
26. According to the article, the average Western European weighs ______.
A. more than an American B. more than a Central European C. less than an American D. less than a Japanese person
27. In comparison with Americans, people in other countries eat more ____.
A. meat B. dairy products C. processed food D. grains
Everyone has experienced headaches, but only recently have medical researchers begun to learn more specifically about the causes and possible treatments for different types of headache pain.
The most common type of headache is the simple tension headache. Tension headaches are usually mild and short-lasting and can result from various factors, such as stress caused by worry or noise. Tension headaches are caused by a tightening of the neck or back muscles, which slows the flow of blood and, therefore, oxygen to the brain. It is the lack of oxygen that causes the pain. Most headaches can be relieved by taking a mild analgesic such as aspirin. Analgesics expand the blood vessels and restore the normal flow of blood and oxygen to the brain.
A more serious type of headache is the migraine. Migraine headaches are often extremely painful and can last for hours or days. Like tension headaches, they can be the result of different factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and allergies. Unlike tension headaches, however, they are caused by an abnormal expansion or swelling (rather than a contraction) of the blood vessels within the head. Medicines that shrink swollen blood vessels can be used to treat migraine headaches.
A tiny minority of headaches can be linked to severe physical problems such as head injury or brain tumors. For these types of headaches, there are medicines to treat the symptoms, but there is no cure unless the underlying problem is removed.(244 words)
28. This article discusses the ___ ____.
A. tiny minority of people who have headaches B. history of medical research into headaches C. causes and remedies for headaches D. physical problems caused by headaches
29. A tension headache can result when _______.
A. the neck and back muscles relax B. people get injured in an accident C. the flow of blood is restricted D. too much oxygen goes to the brain
30. Medicines for migraines _______.
A. relax the head and neck B. generally relieve tension C. increase the flow of blood D. cause blood vessels to contract
31. Headaches caused by serious physical problems _______.
A. can’t be treated B. don’t cause much pain C. have no symptoms D. are not very common
A It’s common practice in the poultry industry to amputate the beaks of chickens to prevent them pecking each other. Techniques of ‘debeaking’ vary, but in the UK it is performed on chicks when they are a few days old, and usually involves amputating one third of the upper part of the beak with a heated blade. The poultry industry has always assumed that chickens quickly recover, but evidence presented at the International Ornithological Congress in New Zealand suggests otherwise. Dr. Michael Gentle, of the Institute of Animal Physiology and Genetics Research in Edinburgh, has shown that chickens can feel chronic pain weeks, and sometimes even months, after the operation.
B Chickens have pain receptors in their beak, and so slicing their beaks off with a hot knife must hurt them. What Dr. Gentle has found is that the pain may be delayed, as is the case with human burn victims. ‘The chickens are not in pain initially, but 24 hours later they show clear pain-related behaviour.’ After the beak is amputated, the remaining stump may take two to four weeks to heal. But even then, pain may continue: the damaged nerves still grow, and may be ‘abnormally and spontaneously active’ (believed to the cause of stump pain in human amputees). Even two months later, the stump is unusually sensitive to touch and temperature changes.
C Many aspects of a chicken’s behaviour also suggest that it experiences the long-term pain, and perhaps even the depression, typically felt by human amputees. In the first few weeks after debeaking, a chicken spends more time resting than usual. And even six weeks later, when the stump has healed over, a chicken avoids using its beak.
D The habit of pecking each other doesn’t necessarily start off as aggressive behaviour – it may simply escalate once one bird is injured, and sometimes be a substitute for pecking at litter – but it can quickly leads to the death of weaker birds.
E Is debeaking really the solution, though? A very preliminary survey in Scotland, of two commercial laying breeds, found debeaking had no effect on the extent of feather and comb damage, or on body weights of the number of birds that died. A much more effective approach would be to remove the conditions – such as overcrowding and bright light, for example, that are known to contribute to feather-pecking and cannibalism. Where chickens really have to be kept in such conditions, a more sensible solution than debeaking, says Dr. Gentle, would be to breed strains of chickens that don’t peck each other.
The reading passage is divided into five paragraphs A - E. From the list of headings (i-ix) below, choose the most suitable heading of each paragraph, and write the letter in the space provided.
NB There are more headings than paragraphs so you will not use all of them
i Other effects of debeaking
ii Chickens have feelings
iii Challenging an accepted practice
iv Alternative solutions
v Methods of amputation
vi The pecking habit
vii Chronic Pain
viii Improving the debeaking technique
ix Chickens are not aggressive
32 Paragraph A
33 Paragraph B
34 Paragraph C
35 Paragraph D
36 Paragraph E
Answer the following questions using no more than THREE words from the passage.
37 What has been the industry’s belief in relation to chicks in the debeaking process?
38 Dr. Gentle twice compares the chickens with humans. Write the two categories of humans.
39 According to the passage, one reason for the behaviour of pecking other chickens is ___
A. the need to peck at the ground in a natural habitat.
B. the need to assert dominance over weaker chickens.
C. the natural tendency for aggressive behaviour in chickens.
D. the frustration experienced by caged birds.
40 The author believes that ___
A. debeaking is necessary.
B. debeaking is sensible in certain conditions.
C. debeaking is not the right way to deal with the problem.
D. there is a link between debeaking and the number of chicken deaths.
37 Chickens quickly recover.
38.Human burn victims